Top Electrical & Communications Interview Questions
1.WHAT IS CDMA?
CDMA stands for Code Division Multiple Access which uses digital format. In CDMA systems several transmissions via the radio interface take place simultaneously on the same frequency bandwidth. User data is combined at the transmitter’s side with a code, then transmitted. On air, all transmission get mixed. At the receiver’s side the same code is used as in the transmitter’s side. The code helps the receiver to filter the user information of the transmitter from incoming mixture of all transmissions on the same frequency band and same time.
2.EXPLAIN THE CONCEPT OF FREQUENCY RE-USE.
The whole of the geographical area is divided into hexagonal shape geometrical area called cell and each cell having its own transceiver. Each BTS (cell site) allocated different band of frequency or different channel. Each BTS antenna is designed in such a way that i cover cell area in which it is placed with frequency allotted without interfering other cell signals. The design process of selecting and allocating channel groups for all of the cellular base station within system is called frequency reuse.
Bluetooth is designed to be a personal area network, where participating entities are mobile and require sporadic communication with others. It is omni directional i.e. it does not have line of sight limitation like infra red does. Ericsson started the work on Bluetooth and named it after the Danish king Harold Biuetooth. Bluetooth operates in the 2.4 GHz area of spectrum and provides a range of 10 metres. It offers transfer speeds of around 720 Kbps.
4.WHAT ARE APPLICATIONS OF DSP?
Some selected applications or digital signal processing that are often encountered in daily life are listed as follows:
1. Telecommunication: Echo cancellation in telephone networks.
2. Military Radar signal processing
3. Consumer electronics Digital Audio/TV
4. Instrumentation and control
5. Image processing image representation, image compression
6. Speech processing speech analysis methods are used in automatic speech recognition
7. Medicine Medical diagnostic instrumentation such as computerised tomography (CT)
8. Seismology DSP techniques are employed in geophysical exploration for oil and gas.
9. Signal Filtering Removal of unwanted background noise.
5.EXPLAIN RADIO ENVIRONMENT IN BUILDING.
Building penetration : Building penetration depends on the material used for construction and architecture used. This varies building to building and is based on building construction.
Building Height Effect : The signal strength is always higher at top floor and generally floor gain height is about 2.7dB/floor which is not dependent on building construction.
Building Floor Reception : The signal isolation between floors in a multi floor building is on the average about 20dB. Within a floor of 150 * 150 feet, the propagation loss due to interior walls, depending on the wall materials is about 20 dB between the strong and the weak areas.
6.LIST SOME ADVANTAGES OF GSM.
Here are some advantages of GSM :
1. GSM is mature, this maturity means a more stable network with robust features.
2. Less signal deterioration inside buildings.
3. Ability to use repeaters.
4. Talk time is generally higher in GSM phones due to pulse nature of transmission.
5. The availability of Subscriber Identity Modules allows users to switch networks and handset at will.
6. GSM covers virtually all parts of world so international roaming is not a problem.
7.WHAT ARE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF NUMBERS FOR NETWORK IDENTITY?
Various types of number for network identity are as follows :
1. MSISDN ( Mobile station ISDN) Number : It is international mobile subscriber number which is normally called mobile number. It is unique worldwide.
2. MSRN ( Mobile Subscriber Routing Number) : MSRN is used during mobile terminate trunk call to provide location of mobile subscriber.
3. HON ( Hand Over Number ) : HON is used for providing information required to transfer call from one B?SC to another BSC or to another MSC.
4. ISMI ( International Mobile Subscriber Identity Number) : Purpose of ISMI is for location update and authentication.
5. TMSI ( Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity ) : TMSI is used instead of IMSI to improve security efficiency of network.
6. IMEI : International Mobile Equipment Identity.
8.WHAT ARE GPRS SERVICES?
GPRS services are defined to fall in one of the two categories :
– PTP ( Point to point)
– PTM ( Point to Multipoint)
Some of the GPRS services are not likely to be provided by network operators during early deployment of GPRS due in part to the phased development of standard. Market demand is another factor affecting the decision of operators regarding which services to offer first.
9.WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF SPREAD SPECTRUM?
SPread spectrum has the following advantages :
1. No crosstalk interference.
2. Better voice quality/data integrity and less static noise.
3. Lowered susceptibility to multipath fading.
4. Inherent security.
6. Longer operating distances.
7. Hard to detect.
8. Hard to intercept or demodulate.
9. Harder to jam than narrow bands.
10. Use of ranging and radar.
10.EXPLAIN THE STEPS INVOLVED IN DEMODULATING A SIGNAL.
Once the signal is coded, modulated and then sent, the receiver must demodulate the signal.
This is usually done in two steps :
1. Spectrum spreading (e.g., direct sequence or frequency hopping) modulation is removed.
2. The remaining information bearing signal is demodulated by multiplying with a local reference identical in structure and synchronised with received signal.