51. Coefficient of discharge for a totally submerged orifice as compared to that for an orifice discharging free is
a) slightly less
b) slightly more
c) nearly half
52. The major loss of energy in long pipes is due to
a) sudden enlargement
b) sudden contraction
c) gradual contraction or enlargement
53. Coefficient of contraction for an external cylindrical mouthpiece is
54. Which of the following has highest coefficient of discharge ?
a) sharp edged orifice
c) Borda’s mouthpiece running full
d) CipoUetti weir
55. In a Sutro weir, the discharge is proportional to
where H is head.
56. The discharge over a broad crested weir is maximum when the depth of flow is
c) 2 H/5
d) 2 H/3
where H is the available head.
57. Which of the following statements is correct?
a) Lower critical Reynolds number is of no practical significance in pipe flow problems.
b) Upper critical Reynolds number is significant in pipe flow problems.
c) Lower critical Reynolds number has the value 2000 in pipe flow
d) Upper critical Reynolds number is the number at which turbulent flow changes to laminar flow.
58. For a sphere of radius 15 cm moving with a uniform velocity of 2 m/sec through a liquid of specific gravity 0.9 and dynamic viscosity 0.8 poise, the Reynolds number will be
59. The shear stress distribution for a fluid flowing in between the parallel plates, both at rest, is
a) constant over the cross section
b) parabolic distribution across the section
c) zero at the mid plane and varies linearly with distance from mid plane
d) zero at plates and increases linearly to midpoint
60. If x is the distance from leading edge, then the boundary layer thickness in laminar flow varies as
61. Stanton diagram is a
a) log-log plot of friction factor against Reynolds number
b) log-log plot of relative roughness against Reynolds number
c) semi-log plot of friction factor against Reynolds number
d) semi-log plot of friction factor against relative roughness
62. The depth ‘d’ below the free surface at which the point velocity is equal to the average velocity of flow for a uniform laminar flow with a free surface, will be
a) 0.423 D
b) 0.577 D
c) 0.223 D
d) 0.707 D
where D is the depth of flow.
63. The boundary layer thickness in turbulent flow varies as
where x is the distance from leading edge.
64. The distance y from pipe boundary, at which the point velocity is equal to average velocity for turbulent flow, is
a) 0.223 R
b) 0.423 R
c) 0.577 R
d) 0.707 R
where R is radius of pipe.
65. If a sphere of diameter 1 cm falls in castor oil of kinematic viscosity 10 stokes, with a terminal velocity of 1.5 cm/sec, the coefficient of drag on the sphere is
a) less than 1
b) between 1 and 100
66. In case of an airfoil, the separation of flow occurs
a) at the extreme rear of body
b) at the extreme front of body
c) midway between rear and front of body
d) any where between rear and front of body depending upon Reynolds number
67. When an ideal fluid flows past a sphere,
a) highest intensity of pressure occurs around the circumference at right angles to flow
b) lowest pressure intensity occurs at front stagnation point
c) lowest pressure intensity occurs at rear stagnation point
d) total drag is zero
68. With the same cross-sectional area and immersed in same turbulent flow, the largest total drag will be on
a) a circular disc of plate held normal to flow
b) a sphere
c) a cylinder
d) a streamlined body
69. In which of the following the friction drag is generally larger than pressure drag?
a) a circular disc or plate held normal to flow
b) a sphere
c) a cylinder
d) an airfoil
70. For hydro-dynamically smooth boundary, the friction coefficient for turbulent flow is
b) dependent only on Reynolds number
c) a function of Reynolds number and relative roughness
d) dependent on relative roughness only
71. The value of friction factor ‘f’ for smooth pipes for Reynolds number 106 is approximately equal to
72. For laminar flow in a pipe of circular cross-section, the Darcy’s friction factor f is
a) directly proportional to Reynolds number and independent of pipe wall roughness
b) directly proportional to pipe wall roughness and independent of Reynolds number
c) inversely proportional to Reynolds number and indpendent of pipe wall roughness
d) inversely proportional to Reynolds number and directly proportional to pipe wall roughness
73. Separation of flow occurs when
a) the pressure intensity reaches a minimum
b) the cross-section of a channel is reduced
c) the boundary layer comes to rest
d) all of the above
74. The ratio of average velocity to maximum velocity for steady laminar flow in circular pipes is
75. The distance from pipe boundary, at which the turbulent shear stress is one-third die wall shear stress, is
a) 1/3 R
b) 1/2 R
c) 2/3 R
where R is the radius of pipe.